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Uttar Pradesh (UP) State, India


Area: 249,928 km² (Ranked 4th nationally)

Population: Approximately 241,066,874 (2011) (Ranked 1st nationally)

Capital: Lucknow (Population: ~3,945,000) (2023)

Administrative Divisions: 18 administrative areas, 75 districts



Hinduism - 79%

Islam - 19%

Sikhism - 0.3%



Hindi - 80%, Bhojpuri - 11%

Urdu - 5%, Awadhi - 2%, etc.


Literacy Rate: 67.68% (2011) National average 77.7%

Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP): 18.63 trillion Rupees (2021-22), Ranked 3rd nationally

Per Capita GDP: 68,810 Rupees (2021-22), Ranked 31st nationally (Among the poorest states)


UP has been a historical confluence of various dynasties, reflected in its rich cultural tapestry. The city of Varanasi stands as a testament to the ancient Hindu dynasties, while Meerut marks a significant chapter in the 1857 Indian Rebellion. Post-independence, UP has played a pivotal role in shaping India's political landscape, with many prime ministers hailing from the state.

Economy & Industry

The economy of UP is anchored by traditional industries like textiles and sugar manufacturing, with modern sectors such as IT also gaining prominence. Cities like Kanpur and Noida are industrial hubs, with Noida notably hosting significant Japanese investment, including a Honda factory. The state's industrial progress is a mix of its rich historical legacy and modern advancements.



The political narrative of UP has seen a transition from Congress dominance to the emergence and governance of regional parties, and currently, the BJP's rule. Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath, known for his administrative reforms, is regarded as a potential future national leader. The political dynamics of UP reflect a vibrant democracy with a history of varied governance.


Other Information

Strategically located, UP benefits from two major freight corridors, enhancing connectivity across India. This strategic positioning has secured UP the largest allocation in the federal railway budget for the fiscal years 2023-2024, signalling the state's ongoing infrastructural development.


West Bengal (WB) State, India


Area: 88,752km² (Ranked 13th nationally)
Population: 91,347,736 (As of 2011) (Ranked 4th nationally)
Capital: Kolkata (Population: 14,112,536 (As of 2011))
Administrative Divisions: 23 districts

Hinduism: 71.8%, Islam: 27%
Christianity: 0.7%, Buddhism: 0.3%, Others: 0.2%

Bengali: 86.22%, Hindi: 5%
Sanskrit: 2.66%, Kurukh: 1.82%

Literacy rate: 80.5% (2017) Female literacy rate: 77.7%
Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP): 17 trillion 1900 billion rupees (As of 2023), Ranked 6th among states
Per capita GDP: 141,373 rupees (As of 2023), Ranked 20th nationally


Until the 12th century, Muslim dynasties held autonomous power, but by the 13th century, the Muslim empire seized control of the region. It was later annexed by the Mughal Empire in the 16th century. European expansion followed, with the British East India Company establishing its first trading post in Bengal in 1651. The British began territorial conquest, and West Bengal became part of India during the 1947 partition, separated from present-day Bangladesh.

Economy & Industry

Paddy farming is a leading industry, with significant tea cultivation in the Darjeeling region. The state contributes to 29.27% of the national gross production with other major crops like jute bags, wet bran, iron, and sugarcane. Kolkata’s metropolitan area is a hub for machinery textile, chemical, and leather goods manufacturing. The state also has shipbuilding and repair sites, producing various goods including tractors, carbon, and textile machinery.


Chief Minister: Mamata Banerjee, of the All India Trinamool Congress (AITC), in office since 2011.
Deputy Chief Minister: C.V. Ananda Bose of the Bhartiya Janata Party (BJP).
AITC broke the long-standing Marxist CPI(M) coalition in 2011 and has since maintained a majority in the state assembly. Banerjee is a key political figure, countering the BJP and promoting environmental initiatives.


Other Information

West Bengal has a history of the Marxist influence and is active in establishing environmental regulations. The state has taken steps to promote welfare and education policies and has historical ties to the Indian independence movement.

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